A new cotton thread invented by Heathcoat’s friend

A new cotton thread invented by Heathcoat’s friend, Samuel Cartledge, proved considerably cheaper than silk; lace prices dropped accordingly and lace products now became widely available to the newly industrial classes.

By 1813, John Leavers of Nottingham had modified Heath- coat’s two-tier machine and created carriages, bobbins and combs so delicate that they could be fitted into a single tier.

When large patterns became fashionable in the early 19th century, the industry sought ways to mechanise pattern making. The “Pusher” machine, capable of producing patterned “twist” lace, was first made by Samuel Clark and James Mart of Nottingham in 1812, if you want more information about Calais check at this hotels in calais website.

Even greater breakthroughs were to follow when Joseph Marie Jacquard developed apparatus for textile weaving which could be applied to Nottingham’s lace machines. A variety of intricate patterns could now be produced at high speeds by means of cards patterned with perforated holes, sewn together in an endless chain on a continuously moving cylinder.

Now able to respond quickly to taste and dictate fashions, the lace industry satisfied a hungry public with lace trimmings for evening dresses, shawls, bonnets and wedding veils, lace caps and parasol covers. Crinoline skirts might use anything up to 80 yards of lace trimming.Learn something more about France checking at annecy hotels website.

When Harper ‘s Bazaar declared the new feminine ideal in the 1860s, women adopted the fashion for “the greatest possible flatness and straightness.” Their desire to look like “a pencil covered with raiment” was not good news for Nottingham lace-makers, who responded by turning their attention to domestic supplies, producing huge lace curtains, tablecloths, counter-panes, antimacassars and covers for all manner of objects.

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Lace-making declined after the First World War, check here for more,  as the trend towards less fussy clothes continued and practical needs predominated. But high quality lace continued to be used, emerging in the 1920s as a fabric rather than mere trimming, and dresses made entirely of lace again became popular for afternoon and evening wear.

It was the launch of a revolutionary new fabric — nylon — which changed the face of lace and guaranteed its role in the 20th century. Dresses and shirts, romantic bedroom accessories, soft furnishings and a host of other lace products are now easy-care, machine washable and require the minimum of ironing.

Complicated patterns are composed on computer screens and intricate lace is now manu-factured at high speed at afford-able prices. Nottingham remains Britain’s lace-making centre, but the days of labour intensive, poorly paid work are gone forever and lace is here to stay.